9-volt, E battery, PP3, 6LR61, 6F22, 1604A, 1604D, MN1604 Battery Equivalents and Replacements
9-volt, E, or PP3 battery is a very popular 9V rectangular battery often used in portable radios, cameras, walkie-talkies, smoke alarms, alarm clocks, and other applications that require slightly larger voltage from a single battery.
9V batteries can be both non-rechargeable or rechargeable batteries, featuring different chemistries.
Updated: February 22, 2023.
9V E, PP3, MN1604 Battery Features and Specifications
The physical dimensions of the 9V E, PP3, or MN1604 battery are 48.5 mm in height, 26.5 mm in length, and 17.5 mm in width. Battery terminals are positioned on the same battery end: '+' is a male clasp, and '-' is a female clasp.
Its most common names include 9V battery, 9-volt battery, E battery, PP3 battery, MN1604 battery, and similar.
Labels according to IEC and ANSI standards depend on the chemistry involved.
According to ANSI standard:
According to IEC:
Note that mercury batteries are obsolete and no longer in use.
However, one must note that some brands use different labels, for example, "9-volt 6F22 battery" for alkaline 9-volt battery, although "9-volt 6F22 battery" should be a carbon-zinc battery.
The nominal capacity of a 9V battery depends on the chemistry:
- 550-600 mAh for alkaline 9-volt battery,
- 400 mAh for carbon-zinc 9-volt battery,
- 1200 mAh for non-rechargeable lithium 9-volt battery,
- 175-300 mAh for nickel-metal hydride 9-volt battery,
- 100-120 mAh for nickel-cadmium 9-volt battery,
- 200-650 mAh for rechargeable lithium 9-volt battery,
- 580 mAh for mercury-oxide 9-volt battery, which is now obsolete.
The nominal voltage of these batteries is usually 9V, but the actual voltage depends on the chemistry and internal design. Also, the actual battery voltage depends on the battery age, temperature, discharge current, etc.
9V E, PP3, MN1604 Batteries Comparison Chart
The following comparison chart lists some of the most popular 9-volt battery chemistries with their most important features and specifications:
|Battery Type||Typical Capacity||Nominal Voltage|
|NiCd||100-120 mAh||7.2, 8.4, 9.6V|
|NiMH||175-300 mAh||7.2, 8.4, 9.6V|
|Lithium Polymer||500-550 mAh||7.4V (11.1V)|
|Lithium-Ion||600-650 mAh||7.4V (11.1V)|
As one can see, primary (non-rechargeable) 9V E, PP3, MN1604 batteries feature a nominal voltage of 9V, with the nominal capacity depending on the battery chemistry.
Similarly, both the voltage and capacity of the secondary (rechargeable) 9V batteries depend on the chemistry but also on the number of cells.
6F22 vs. 6LR61: Zinc Carbon 6F22 9V Batteries vs. Alkaline 6F22 9V Batteries
Zinc Carbon 6F22 9V batteries are the oldest chemistry type, setting some standards for this battery size, including a nominal output voltage of 9.0 volts.
However, zinc-carbon batteries, in general, feature a relatively short shelf life (they tend to leak) and a relatively low capacity.
But, they are cheap and still manufactured by many battery brands and are used in toys, smoke detectors, smoke alarms, calculators, LED flashlights, remote controllers, etc.
Because they tend to leak and have a relatively short operating life, zinc-carbon 6F22 9V batteries are being more and more replaced by alkaline 6LR61 9V batteries.
Alkaline 9V batteries often contain six LR61 cells, which are very similar to AAAA cells (42.5 x 8.3 mm) - hence the "6LR61" IEC label. However, there are other designs as well, for example, with rectangular cells.
Alkaline 9V batteries have a nominal voltage of 9.0 V and a cut-off voltage of 6.0 volts, with a nominal capacity of 550-600 mAh, which also depends on the discharge current, battery age, discharge temperature, and similar.
Alkaline 6LR61 9V batteries feature a shelf life of 3-5 years, rarely more.
NiCd and NiMH 9V Rectangular Batteries
NiCd and NiMH 9V batteries can have 6, 7, or even 8 cells, providing 7.2, 8.4, or 9.6 volts - they feature 1.2V/Cell.
NiCd batteries are able to provide strong currents but have a very strong memory effect, and they are anything but environment-friendly batteries - hence, they are being phased out in favor of NiMH and 9V lithium rechargeable batteries.
Modern Nickel Metal Hydride batteries have very low, if any, memory effect; they are environment-friendly batteries (but they also must be disposed of properly!), have a low-self discharge rate, and are still used, although they are being phased out in favor of rechargeable 9V lithium batteries.
Note: According to IEC standard, NiCd and NiMH 9V battery labels are 6KR61 (Nickel-Cadmium) and 6HR61 (Nickel-Metal Hydride), indicating six cells per battery and 7.2V actual voltage. But, some brands use different internal construction and have 7 or even 8 cells connected in series, providing a nominal voltage of 8.4V or 9.6V, respectively.
Lithium Non-Rechargeable 9V Rectangular Batteries
Lithium Manganese Dioxide (Li-MnO2) non-rechargeable 9V batteries contain three 3V cells providing 9.0 nominal voltage with a cut-off voltage of 6.0 volts, very similar to alkaline batteries.
Lithium non-rechargeable 9V batteries are often still labeled as 6F22 batteries, despite being based on the Lithium Manganese Chemistry, which offers good capacity and allows strong discharge currents, sometimes up to or even more than 1 Amp.
Modern 9V lithium batteries feature very low-self discharge rates (sometimes even less than 1-3% per year), allowing their use in standby applications.
Note: some brands offer 9-volt rectangular batteries based on the Lithium-Thionyl Chloride (Li-SOCl2) chemistry, featuring a nominal voltage of 10.8V, a capacity of 1.2Ah, 10+ years storage life, a broad temperature range, etc. But, Lithium-Thionyl Chloride (Li-SOCl2) batteries are intended for low current applications.
Rechargeable Lithium 9V Rectangular Batteries
Rechargeable lithium 9V batteries have two or three 3.6 volts cells and generally have a nominal voltage of 7.2 or 10.8 volts.
We say generally since some manufacturers make 9V batteries using lithium-ion (7.2 or 10.8V internally) or lithium-polymer (7.4 or 11.1V internally) with electronic protection circuitry, which monitors battery status and provides the output under or over-voltage protection.
Note: when charging lithium 9V rechargeable batteries, it is highly recommended to use battery chargers recommended by the battery manufacturer. Some manufacturers make lithium battery chargers that should NOT be used for charging lithium batteries of other manufacturers due to the protective electronics found in their batteries. If you need a good and safe rechargeable lithium battery and charger, perhaps the best option is to buy them as a combo/bundle.
9V Rectangular Batteries Comparison Chart
The following comparison chart lists some of the most popular 9V rectangular batteries with their most important features and specifications:
|Capacity||Operating Temperature||Annual Self-Discharge Rate||Discharge Current|
|Duracell MN1604 (6LR61)||700 mAh @2mA down to 5.0V
620 mAh @10mA down to 5.0V
250 mAh @250mA down to 5.0V
|-20°C to +54°C||-||-|
|Duracell MN1604 (6LP3146)||715 mAh @2mA down to 5.0V
590 mAh @10mA down to 5.0V
~180 mAh @250mAh down to 5.0V
|-20°C to +54°C||-||-|
|Energizer 522||600 mAh @10mA down to 4.8V
580 mAh @25mA down to 4.8V
|-18°C to +55°C||shelf life 5 years @21°C||-|
|Energizer L522||~780 mAh @25mA down to 5.4V||-40°C to +60°C||shelf life 10 years||1000mA max. cont.|
|~600 mAh @10mA down to 5.4V
~400mAh @100mA down to 5.4V
|-20°C to +54°C||shelf life 5 years down to 85% capacity||-|
|Saft LS 9 V
|1200 mAh @1mA down to 6.0V @20°C||-60°C to +85°C||<1% @20°C||100mA max. pulse
35mA max. cont.
As one can see, the standard 9V rectangular battery is a 6LR61 9-volt battery, but other labels and chemistries are used as well.
9V E, PP3, MN1604 Battery Frequently Asked Questions - 9V Battery FAQ
Here are some of the most common questions regarding E, PP3, MN1604, 6F22, 6LR61 9V batteries.
What is a 6F22 9V battery?
6F22 9V battery is a small rectangular battery featuring physical dimensions of (H x L x W) 48.5 x 26.5 x 17.5 mm.
As its name suggests, it has a nominal voltage of 9 volts and is a very common battery type, often used in LED flashlights, smoke detectors/alarms, calculators, wearable electronics, and similar.
6F22 9V battery should be a zinc-carbon battery, but many brands use the "6F22" label for other chemistries as well.
How long will a 9-volt battery last?
Shelf life depends on the battery chemistry - zinc-carbon 2-3 years, alkaline 3-5 years, lithium non-rechargeable 7-10+ years.
When the batteries are in use, their runtime depends on the current discharge, battery age, temperature, and similar.
Are all 9-volt batteries the same?
No, they vary in chemistry and hence the discharge features.
What is a 9-volt battery used for?
6F22 9V batteries are commonly used in smoke detectors/alarms, calculators, flashlights, game, and similar controllers, remote controllers, clocks, etc.
Are there different types of 9V batteries?
Yes, there are several types of 9V batteries - please check the charts in the article.
Which 9-volt battery is best?
Best buy non-rechargeable 6F22 9V battery is an alkaline 9V battery, while the best performer is the lithium 6F22 9V battery - and those batteries should NOT be labeled as "6F22" batteries since the 6F22 9V battery is a carbon-zinc battery.
The best rechargeable 9V battery is a lithium-ion battery with a protective BMS system that allows the user to recharge it using a USB port and which also holds the output voltage of around 9V constantly.
What's the longest-lasting 9-volt battery?
Lithium non-rechargeable 9V battery based on the Lithium-Thionyl Chloride (Li-SOCl2) chemistry - it has the highest capacity, good tolerance to high/low temperatures, stable output voltage, very good shelf life, but it is intended only for low-current applications.
Lithium non-rechargeable 9V battery based on Lithium Manganese Dioxide (Li-MnO2) is the next best thing - but they also tolerate high-discharge currents.
Can you use any 9V batteries for smoke detectors?
Generally, non-rechargeable alkaline 6LR61 9V batteries (often labeled as 6F22 9V batteries) are recommended for smoke detectors that use such batteries. But, just in case, check the documentation of your smoke detectors regarding recommended battery type.
Where to buy a 9-volt battery?
6F22/6LR61 9V batteries are quite common and can be bought at various online and offline shops and stores.
Can a 9-volt battery start a fire?
If the very thin wire is connected to the battery terminals (the battery is without protective electronics), then yes, such a battery can provide enough current to overheat the wire.
If the lithium-ion 9V battery without BMS is overcharged or discharged with a too strong current, then yes, such a battery may overheat itself and cause a fire.
When is the 9-volt battery dead?
When the battery is dead, depends on the battery chemistry - for example, the cutoff voltage of an alkaline/zinc-carbon 6LR61/6F22 9V battery is in the 5.6-6.0 volts range, although some brands test them down to 4.8-5.0 volts.
For exact cutoff voltages, check the documentation of the battery.
For Short: 9V batteries, also labeled as 9-volt, E battery, PP3, 6LR61, 6F22, 1604A, 1604D, MN1604, etc., are common batteries often found in various devices at home. They can be found at local or online stores and, if required, easily ordered.
If you are unsure which one to take, go for alkaline or lithium non-rechargeable models, and don't worry about charging them.
If you need rechargeable 9V batteries, go for the batteries/battery charger bundle/combo of reputable brands.