9-volt, E battery, PP3, 6LR61, 6F22, 1604A, 1604D, MN1604 Battery Equivalents and Replacements
9-volt, E, or PP3 battery is a very popular 9V rectangular battery often used in portable radios, cameras, walkies-talkies, smoke alarms, alarm clocks, and other applications that require slightly larger voltage from a single battery.
9V batteries can be both non-rechargeable or rechargeable batteries, featuring different chemistries.
Updated: November 13, 2021.
6F22 9V Battery Features and Specifications
Physical dimensions of 9V E or PP3 battery are 48.5 mm height, 26.5 mm length, and 17.5 mm width. Battery terminals are positioned on the same battery end: '+' is a male clasp, and '-' is a female clasp.
Its most common names include 9V battery, 9-volt battery, E battery, PP3 battery, MN1604 battery, and similar.
Labels according to IEC and ANSI standards depend on the chemistry involved.
According to ANSI standard:
- 1604A (alkaline),
- 1604D (carbon-zinc),
- 1604LC (lithium),
- 7.2H5 (nickel-metal hydride),
- 11604 (nickel-cadmium),
- 1604M (mercury-oxide).
According to IEC:
- 6LR61 (alkaline),
- 6F22 (carbon-zinc),
- 6KR61 (nickel-cadmium),
- 6HR61 (nickel-metal hydride).
Note that mercury batteries are obsolete and no longer in use.
The nominal capacity of a 9V battery depends on the chemistry:
- 550-600 mAh (alkaline),
- 400 mAh (carbon-zinc),
- 1200 mAh (non-rechargeable lithium),
- 175-300 mAh (nickel-metal hydride),
- 100-120 mAh (nickel-cadmium),
- 200-650 mAh (rechargeable lithium),
- 580 mAh (mercury-oxide, obsolete).
The nominal voltage of these batteries is usually 9V, but the actual voltage depends on the chemistry and internal design.
6F22 9V Batteries Comparison Chart
The following comparison chart lists some of the most popular 9-volt battery chemistries with their most important features and specifications:
|Battery Type||Typical Capacity||Nominal Voltage|
|NiCd||100-120 mAh||7.2, 8.4, 9.6V|
|NiMH||175-300 mAh||7.2, 8.4, 9.6V|
|Lithium Polymer||500-550 mAh||7.4V (11.1V)|
|Lithium-Ion||600-650 mAh||7.4V (11.1V)|
As one can see, primary (non-rechargeable) 6F22 9V batteries feature a nominal voltage of 9V, with the nominal capacity depending on the battery chemistry.
Similarly, both the voltage and capacity of the secondary (rechargeable) 6F22 9V batteries depend on the chemistry, but also on the number of cells.
Zinc Carbon 6F22 9V Batteries
Zinc Carbon 6F22 9V batteries are the oldest chemistry type, setting some standards for this battery size, including a nominal output voltage of 9.0 volts.
However, zinc-carbon batteries, in general, feature a relatively short shelf life (they tend to leak) and a relatively low capacity. However, they are cheap and still manufactured by many battery brands and are used in toys, smoke detectors, smoke alarms, calculators, LED flashlights, remote controllers, etc.
Because of their tendency to leak and relatively short operating life, zinc-carbon 6F22 9V batteries are being more and more replaced by alkaline 6F22 9V batteries.
Alkaline 6F22 9V Batteries
Alkaline 9V batteries often contain six LR61 cells which are very similar to AAAA cells (42.5 x 8.3 mm) - hence the "6LR61" IEC label. However, there are other designs as well, for example, with rectangular cells.
Alkaline 9V batteries have a nominal voltage of 9.0 V and a cut-off voltage of 6.0 volts, with a nominal capacity of 550-600 mAh which also depends on the discharge current, battery age, discharge temperature, and similar.
Alkaline 6F22 9V batteries feature a shelf life of 3-5 years, rarely more.
NiCd and NiMH 6F22 9V Batteries
NiCd and NiMH 9V batteries can have 6, 7, or even 8 cells, providing 7.2, 8.4, or 9.6 volts - they feature 1.2V/Cell.
NiCd batteries are able to provide strong currents but have a very strong memory effect and they are anything but environment-friendly batteries - hence, they are being phased out in the favor of NiMH and 9V lithium rechargeable batteries.
Modern Nickel Metal Hydride batteries have very low, if any, memory effect, they are environment-friendly batteries (but they also must be disposed of properly!), have a low-self discharge rate, and are still used, although they are being phased out in favor of rechargeable 9V lithium batteries.
Lithium Non-Rechargeable 6F22 9V Batteries
Lithium non-rechargeable 9V batteries contain three 3V cells providing 9.0 nominal voltage with a cut-off voltage of 6.0 volts, very similar to alkaline batteries.
Lithium non-rechargeable 6F22 9V batteries are based on the Lithium Manganese Chemistry which offers good capacity and allows strong discharge currents, sometimes up to or even more than 1 Amp.
Modern 9V lithium batteries feature very low-self discharge rates (sometimes even less than 1-3% per year), allowing their use in standby applications.
Rechargeable Lithium 6F22 9V Batteries
Rechargeable lithium 9V batteries have two or three 3.6 volts cells and generally have a nominal voltage of 7.2 or 10.8 volts.
We say generally since some manufacturers make 9V batteries using lithium-ion (7.2 or 10.8V internally) or lithium-polymer (7.4 or 11.1V internally) with electronic protection circuitry which monitors battery status and provides the output under- or over-voltage protection.
Note: when charging lithium 9V rechargeable batteries, it is highly recommended to use battery chargers recommended by the battery manufacturer. Some manufacturers make lithium battery chargers that should NOT be used for charging lithium batteries of other manufacturers due to the protective electronics found in their batteries. If you need a good and safe rechargeable lithium battery and charger, perhaps the best option is to buy them as a combo/bundle.
6F22 9V Battery Frequently Asked Questions - 6F22 9V Battery FAQ
Here are some of the most common questions regarding 6F22 9V batteries.
What is a 6F22 9V battery?
6F22 9V battery is a small rectangular battery featuring physical dimensions of (H x L x W) 48.5 x 26.5 x 17.5 mm.
As its name suggests, it has a nominal voltage of 9 volts and is a very common battery type, often used in LED flashlights, smoke detectors/alarms, calculators, wearable electronics, and similar.
How long will a 9-volt battery last?
Shelf life depends on the battery chemistry - zinc-carbon 2-3 years, alkaline 3-5 years, lithium non-rechargeable 7-10+ years.
When the batteries are in use, their runtime depends on the current discharge, battery age, temperature, and similar.
Are all 9-volt batteries the same?
No, they vary in chemistry and hence the discharge features.
What is a 9-volt battery used for?
6F22 9V batteries are commonly used in smoke detectors/alarms, calculators, flashlights, game and similar controllers, remote controllers, clocks, etc.
Are there different types of 9V batteries?
Yes, there are several types of 6F22 9V batteries - please check the chart in the article.
Which 9-volt battery is best?
Best buy non-rechargeable 6F22 9V battery is an alkaline 9V battery, while the best performer is the lithium 6F22 9V battery.
The best rechargeable 6F22 9V battery is a lithium-ion battery with the protective BMS system which allows the user to recharge it using a USB port and which also holds the output voltage around 9V constantly.
What's the longest-lasting 9-volt battery?
Lithium non-rechargeable 6F22 9V battery - it has the highest capacity, good tolerance to high/low temperatures, stable output voltage, and very good shelf life.
Can you use any 9V batteries for smoke detectors?
Generally, non-rechargeable 6F22 9V batteries are recommended for smoke detectors that use such batteries. But, just in case, check the documentation of your smoke detectors regarding recommended battery type.
Where to buy a 9-volt battery?
6F22 9V batteries are quite common and can be bought at various online and offline shops and stores.
Can a 9-volt battery start a fire?
If the very thin wire is connected to the battery terminals (the battery is without protective electronics), then yes, such battery can provide enough current to overheat the wire.
If the lithium-ion 6F22 9V battery without BMS is overcharged or discharged with a too strong current, then yes, such battery may overheat itself and cause a fire.
When is the 9-volt battery dead?
When the battery is dead, depends on the battery chemistry - for example, the cutoff voltage of alkaline 6F22 9V battery is in the 5.6-6.0 volts range.
For exact cutoff voltages, check the documentation of the battery.
For Short: 9V batteries, also labeled as 9-volt, E battery, PP3, 6LR61, 6F22, 1604A, 1604D, MN1604, etc. are common batteries often found in various devices at home. They can be found at local or online stores and if required, easily ordered.
If you are unsure which one to take, go for alkaline or lithium non-rechargeable models, and don't worry about charging them.
If you need rechargeable 9V batteries, go for the batteries/battery charger bundle/combo of reputable brands.