9-volt, E battery, PP3, 6LR61, 6F22, 1604A, 1604D, MN1604 Battery Equivalents and Replacements
9-volt, E, or PP3 battery is a very popular 9V rectangular battery often used in portable radios, cameras, walkies-talkies, smoke alarms, alarm clocks, and other applications that require slightly larger voltage from a single battery.
9V batteries can be both non-rechargeable or rechargeable batteries, featuring different chemistries.
Physical dimensions of 9V E or PP3 battery are 48.5 mm height, 26.5 mm length, and 17.5 mm width. Battery terminals are positioned on the same battery end: '+' is a male clasp, and '-' is a female clasp.
Its most common names include 9V battery, 9-volt battery, E battery, PP3 battery, MN1604 battery, and similar.
Labels according to IEC and ANSI standards depend on the chemistry involved.
According to ANSI standard:
- 1604A (alkaline),
- 1604D (carbon-zinc),
- 1604LC (lithium),
- 7.2H5 (nickel-metal hydride),
- 11604 (nickel-cadmium),
- 1604M (mercury-oxide).
According to IEC:
- 6LR61 (alkaline),
- 6F22 (carbon-zinc),
- 6KR61 (nickel-cadmium),
- 6HR61 (nickel-metal hydride).
Note that mercury batteries are obsolete and no longer in use.
The nominal capacity of a 9V battery depends on the chemistry:
- 550-600 mAh (alkaline),
- 400 mAh (carbon-zinc),
- 1200 mAh (non-rechargeable lithium),
- 175-300 mAh (nickel-metal hydride),
- 100-120 mAh (nickel-cadmium),
- 200-650 mAh (rechargeable lithium),
- 580 mAh (mercury-oxide, obsolete).
The nominal voltage of these 9V batteries depends on the chemistry and internal design.
The following comparison chart lists some of the most popular 9-volt battery chemistries with their most important features and specifications:
|Battery Type||Typical Capacity||Nominal Voltage|
|NiCd||100-120 mAh||7.2, 8.4, 9.6V|
|NiMH||175-300 mAh||7.2, 8.4, 9.6V|
|Lithium Polymer||500-550 mAh||7.4V (11.1V)|
|Lithium-Ion||600-650 mAh||7.4V (11.1V)|
Alkaline 9V batteries often contain six LR61 cells which are very similar to AAAA cells (42.5 x 8.3 mm) - hence IEC labels. However, there are other designs as well, for example, with rectangular cells.
Alkaline 9V batteries have a nominal voltage of 9.0 V and a cut-off voltage of 6.0 volts.
NiCd and NiMH 9V batteries can have 6, 7, or even 8 cells, providing 7.2, 8.4, or 9.6 volts - they feature 1.2V/Cell. NiCd batteries are able to provide strong currents but have a very strong memory effect and they are anything but environment-friendly batteries.
Modern Nickel Metal Hydride batteries have very low, if any, memory effect, they are environment-friendly batteries (but they also must be disposed of properly!), have a low-self discharge rate, and are still used, although they are being phased out in favor of rechargeable 9V lithium batteries.
Lithium non-rechargeable 9V batteries contain three 3V cells providing 9.0 nominal voltage with a cut-off voltage of 6.0 volts, just like alkaline batteries.
Modern 9V lithium batteries feature very low-self discharge rates (sometimes even less than 10% per year), allowing their use in standby applications.
Rechargeable lithium 9V batteries have two or three 3.6 volts cells and generally have a nominal voltage of 7.2 or 10.8 volts. We say generally since some manufacturers make 9V batteries using lithium-ion (7.2 or 10.8V internally) or lithium-polymer (7.4 or 11.1V internally) with electronic protection circuitry which monitors battery status and provides the output under- or over-voltage protection.
Note: when charging lithium 9V rechargeable batteries, it is highly recommended to use battery chargers recommended by the battery manufacturer. Some manufacturers make lithium battery chargers that should NOT be used for charging lithium batteries of other manufacturers due to the protective electronics found in their batteries. If you need a good and safe rechargeable lithium battery and charger, perhaps the best option is to buy them as a combo/bundle.
For Short: 9V batteries, also labeled as 9-volt, E battery, PP3, 6LR61, 6F22, 1604A, 1604D, MN1604, etc. are common batteries often found in various devices at home. They can be found at local or online stores and if required, easily ordered.
If you are unsure which one to take, go for alkaline or lithium non-rechargeable models, and don't worry about charging them.
If you need rechargeable 9V batteries, go for the batteries/battery charger bundle/combo of reputable brands.