Battery Equivalents and Replacements

AAA Batteries - Size, Chemistry Types, and Replacements

AAA batteries are one of the most common cylindrical battery sizes used in various electronic and electric devices, like remote controls, toys, cameras, flashlights, radios, etc.

AAA batteries differ greatly in chemistry and hence they differ in capacity, voltage, current/voltage discharging characteristics, and many other features, which may be of great importance when powering sensitive electronic equipment.

Updated: April 23, 2024.

energizer alkaline aaa

AAA Battery Dimensions, Features, and Specifications

AAA batteries are cylindrical batteries 10.5 mm (0.41 inch) in diameter and 44.5 mm (1.75 inch) in length.

Their standard label is 'AAA', but other labels are also in use, often depending on the country, chemistry, standard, and similar, including LR03, R03, FR03, HR03, KR03, ZR03, 24A, 24D, 24LF, MN2400, MX2400, MV2400, Type 286, U16, HP16, UM 4, etc.

But, practically all the most important battery brands label them as AAA batteries.

The following chart lists the most common AAA battery chemistries, labels, and their features, including perhaps their most important features, AAA battery voltage, and capacity:

Chemistry Common Name Rechargeable Typical Capacity (mAh) Voltage
Zinc Carbon R03, 24D No 500-600 1.5
Alkaline LR03, 24A Mostly No 850-1200 1.5
Li-FeS2 FR03, 24LF No 1100-1300 1.5 (1.8 max)
Li-ion 10440 Yes 350-600 3.6 - 3.7
LiFePO4 IFR10440, IFR10450 Yes 250-300 3.2
Li-SOCl2 (10450) No 600-800 3.6-3.7
Lithium - Yes 400-600 1.5
NiCd KR03, 24K Yes 300-500 1.2
NiMH HR03, 24H Yes 600-1300 1.2
NiOOH ZR03 No 1000-1200 1.5 (1.7 max)
NiZn - Yes 500-700 1.6 - 1.65

Although AAA batteries features vary greatly depending on the chemistry type, the most important AAA batteries are non-rechargeable alkaline AAA batteries and NiMH rechargeable AAA batteries.

However, with the advances in technology and chemistry, new types are gaining in popularity as well.

AAA Battery Capacity

The capacity of AAA batteries depends on the exact battery chemistry, but it also depends on the discharge current, discharge temperature, battery age, and similar.

The following comparison chart lists some of the most popular AAA batteries with their most important features and specifications, capacity included:

Capacity Operating Temperature
Shelf Life
Duracell AA Coppertop ~1450 mAh down to 0.8V @5mA
~1050 mAh down to 0.8V @5mA
-20°C to +54°C
Duracell AAA Optimum ~1500 mAh down to 0.8V @5mA
~1075 mAh down to 0.8V @100mA
-20°C to +54°C
Duracell AAA Rechargeable 900 mAh down to 1.0V -10°C to +50°C
EEMB ER10450 800 mAh down to 2.0V @0.5mA @23±2°C -55°C to +85°C
10 years
20 mA max. cont.
50 mA max. pulse
EEMB ER10450S 600 mAh down to 2.0V @2mA @23±2°C -55°C to +150°C
10 years
50 mA max. cont.
100 mA max. pulse
EEMB LiR10440 320 mAh down to 2.75V -20°C to +60°C
320 mA (1C) max. cont.
Energizer E92 ~1300 mAh down to 0.8V @10mA
~900 mAh down to 0.8V @100mA
-18°C to +55°C
12 years @21°C
Energizer L92 ~1250 mAh down to 0.8V @10mA
~1000 mAh down to 0.8V @1000mA (1A)
-40°C to +60°C
25 years @21°C
1.5A max. cont.
2.0A pulse 2s On, 8s Off
Energizer NH12-700 700 mAh down to 1.0V @21°C @140mA (0.2C) 0°C to +50°C
Energizer NH12-800 800 mAh down to 1.0V @21°C @160mA (0.2C) 0°C to +50°C
GP Batteries GN24A - - down to 0.9V over 20Ω for ~16.5h
Panasonic Eneloop BK-4MCC 750 mAh down to 1.0V @400mA @25°C
680 mAh down to 1.0V @2400 mA @25°C
0°C to +50°C
Procell AAA PC2400 1222 mAh down to 0.8V @25mA @20°C
~1000 mAh down to 0.8V @100mA
-20°C to +54°C
Rayovac AAA Fusion ~1160 mAh down to 0.9V @20mA
~1100 mAh down to 0.9V @50mA
-30°C to +55°C
12 years @21°C
Rayovac AAA Heavy Duty 400 mAh down to 0.9V @50mA -18°C to +55°C
4 years @21°C
Rayovac AAA High Energy ~1120 mAh down to 0.9V @20mA
~1050 mAh down to 0.9V @50mA
-30°C to +55°C
10 years @21°C

As one can see, AAA batteries' capacities vary from 300-400 mAh for non-rechargeable 1.5V Zinc-Carbon and rechargeable 3.7V Li-Ion batteries to 1300-1500mAh high-end alkaline batteries.

AAA Battery Voltage

The voltage of AAA batteries depends on the exact battery chemistry:

  • Zinc Carbon: 1.5V, drops relatively quickly over time,
  • Alkaline: 1.5V, more stable output voltage when compared with Zinc-Carbon chemistry,
  • Lithium Iron Disulfide (Li-FeS2): 1.8V open-circuit voltage, drops down to 1.5V as soon as light load is applied.
  • Nickel Metal Hydride (NiCd): 1.2V
  • Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH): 1.2V
  • Lithium Ion: 3.6-3.7V
  • Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4): 3.2V
  • Nickel Oxy-Hydroxide (NiOOH): 1.7V max, drops to 1.5V during high discharge applications,
  • Nickel Zinc (NiZn): 1.60-1.65V max.

When looking for AAA battery replacements, unless otherwise noted, one should look for ~1.5V batteries.

Non-Rechargeable (Primary) AAA Batteries

Non-rechargeable (primary) AAA batteries include Zinc Carbon, Alkaline, Li-FeS2, and NiOOH batteries.

Zinc Carbon AAA batteries are a somewhat older type of primary batteries, featuring a nominal voltage of 1.5 V and a typical capacity of 500-600 mAh.

Zinc Carbon AAA batteries were very popular AAA battery chemistry, but due to their lower capacity, these batteries are almost fully replaced by alkaline AAA batteries.

Alkaline AAA batteries are practically a standard chemistry type of AAA batteries.

They also feature a nominal voltage of 1.5V and a larger capacity of 850 - 1200 mAh.

When compared with Zinc Carbon batteries, alkaline AAA batteries have a higher capacity and higher energy density, with longer shelf-life, with some brands offering up to 10+ years of shelf life.

Note: most alkaline batteries are non-rechargeable (primary) batteries. But, specially designed AAA alkaline batteries can be recharged numerous times, although these are not standard alkaline batteries.

Unless otherwise labeled, the alkaline AAA battery is a primary, non-rechargeable battery.

Some of the most popular models include (Amazon links, the links open in the new windows):

NiOOH or Nickel Oxy-Hydroxide AAA battery is a type of alkaline battery where nickel oxyhydroxide is added to the manganese dioxide, leading to the 1.5 V typical voltage during high drain use and 1.7 V maximum voltage.

duracell niooh aaa

NiOOH AAA batteries have a very similar capacity to standard alkaline batteries, but they can be drained using larger currents and are often used in high-drain devices like cameras and similar ones.

Li-FeS2 or Lithium Iron Disulfide is a type of non-rechargeable AAA lithium battery featuring a typical voltage of 1.5 V during high drain applications but also up to 1.8 V maximum open-circuit voltage.

energizer aaa lithium

Its typical capacity is in the 1100 - 1300mAh range, providing high capacity and energy density.

Li-FeS2 AAA batteries are commonly used in high-drain devices like cameras, flashlights, high-end toys, and similar.

Thanks to their ultra-long shelf/standby life (up to 20+ years!), Li-FeS2 batteries are recommended for devices and applications that are used rarely/in standby, but they must be powered with a reliable power source, even after years (decades!) of non-use.

When choosing the best AAA primary battery, don't forget to take into account the type of device that you have - some devices will tolerate large input voltage differences, but some will not.

For short - if you need a good primary (non-rechargeable) AAA battery, go for an Alkaline AAA battery from reputable brands. Such batteries provide stable voltage, long shelf file, and good capacity at an affordable price.

For more reviews and recommendations, feel free to check the Lithium AAA Battery Amazon link (the link opens in the new window).

Rechargeable (Secondary) AAA Batteries

Rechargeable AAA batteries include battery chemistry types like Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd), Nickel-Metal-Hydride (NiMH), and various lithium-ion batteries.

Nickel Cadmium AAA batteries are an older type of rechargeable batteries featuring 1.2 V nominal voltage and a capacity of 300 - 500 mAh.

These batteries feature a strong memory effect and a rather high self-discharge rate. However, NiCd batteries are also able to provide strong currents without adverse effects on the batteries.

On the other hand, NiCd batteries also contain cadmium (heavy metal, dangerous pollutant), and are being phased out in the favor of more environmentally friendly NiMH batteries.

eneloop aaa 800mahNickel Metal Hydride AAA batteries feature a nominal voltage of 1.2 V and a typical capacity of 600 - 1300 mAh. Their nominal capacity and maximum allowed drain current greatly depend on the battery type (low drain, high-capacity or high drain, lower capacity).

Modern NiMH batteries have a very low self-discharge rate, with almost no memory effect, and with output voltage more stable than the output voltage of older NiCd batteries.

For example, Panasonic Eneloop 800 mAh AAA batteries hold 90% of charge after 1 year of storage, 80% after 3 years, 75% after 5 years, and even 70% after 10 years of storage, making them suitable even for standby applications and may be recharged 2100+ times.

Also, Panasonic Eneloop Pro AAA batteries hold, for example, 85% of charge after 1 year, but their capacity is 950 mAh and may be recharged 500+ times.

Both NiCd and NiMH batteries feature lower voltage when compared with Zinc-Carbon and Alkaline AAA batteries (1.2 vs. 1.5 volts), but most electronic devices are designed to be powered by either 1.2 or 1.5 volts batteries.

Just to be sure, before switching from 1.5 to 1.2V or from 1.2 to 1.5 volts, check the manual of your device - better safe than sorry :)

For the best offers and up-to-date prices, feel free to check the Panasonic Eneloop AAA Battery Amazon link (the link opens in the new window).

Lithium-ion AAA or 10440 batteries are rechargeable cylindrical batteries that are physically very similar to AAA batteries.

10440 lithium-ion batteries feature a diameter of 10.0 mm (vs 10.5 mm of AAA battery) and height of 44 mm (vs 44.5 mm of AAA battery) - thus, the terms 10440 batteries or lithium-ion rechargeable AAA batteries are used interchangeably.

There are generally two types of lithium rechargeable batteries:

  • lithium-ion AAA batteries with an output voltage of 3.6-3.7 volts (or 3.2-3.7 volts) and a maximum charging voltage of 4.2 volts. These batteries include IMR (LiMn204 - Lithium Manganese Oxide), INR (LiNiMnCoO2 - Lithium Manganese Nickel), IFR (LiFePO4 - Lithium Iron Phosphate), ICR (LiCoO2 - Lithium Cobalt Oxide), or some other similar/hybrid (LiNiCoO2 - Lithium Nickel Cobalt Oxide, LiNiCoAlO2 - Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide, etc.) technology.

The typical capacity of lithium-ion AAA batteries is in the 350-600 mAh range, but it also depends on the battery design (high capacity, low drain current or lower capacity, higher drain currents).

Unless explicitly stated by their manufacturers, devices/appliances/toys designed for 1.2-1.5 volt AAA batteries should NOT be powered by the 3.2-3.7 lithium-ion AAA batteries.

usb rechargeable 1 5 v aaa

  • lithium rechargeable AAA batteries with an output voltage of 1.5 volts and a capacity of 400-600 mAh. These batteries feature Battery Management Systems (BMS) that ensure a stable output voltage of 1.5 volts and protect the battery from overcharging, over-current, high and low-temperature operations, and similar.

As such, they may be used as a direct replacement for 1.5 volts Zinc-Carbon or Alkaline batteries. Also, most of these batteries feature a micro-USB charging connector and may be charged directly.

AAA Batteries vs. 18650 Batteries

samsung inr18650 25r battery

At first, AAA and 18650 batteries don't have much in common - AAA batteries are cylindrical batteries 10.5 mm (0.41 inch) in diameter and 44.5 mm (1.75 inches) in length, while 18650 batteries are cylindrical batteries 18.6 mm (0.73 inches) in diameter and 65.2 mm (2.56 inch) in length.

18650 batteries are lithium-ion rechargeable batteries with a nominal voltage of 3.2-3.7 volts and a maximum charging voltage of 4.2 volts, and a nominal capacity of 1500 - 5000 mAh (depending on the battery type and design).

On the other hand, three AAA batteries connected in series feature 3.6 volts (NiCd or NiMH) to 4.5 volts (Zinc-Carbon, Alkaline).

aaa battery holder

Certain devices are designed to be powered by either one 18650 battery or 3xAAA batteries using a special battery holder.

Although such devices offer great flexibility when choosing the batteries, the 18650 battery easily outperforms 3xAAA batteries in terms of power - some 18650 batteries may easily provide 30+ Amps of current.

On the other hand, some EDC (Every Day Carry) devices like flashlights that are rarely used, but must be powered with reliable batteries after years of storage, should be powered by Li-FeS2 AAA batteries featuring up to 20+ years shelf/standby life.

If your device may be powered by both AAA or 18650 batteries, choose according to your own personal needs.

How Long Do AAA Batteries Last

How long AAA batteries last depend on their chemistry and storage conditions. On average, when stored properly, AAA batteries last up to:

  • Zinc Carbon: 2-3 years, with some newer models having shelf life of up to 4 years,
  • Alkaline: 3-5 years, some models 10+ years,
  • Lithium Iron Disulfide: 20+ years,
  • NiCd: 2-5 years,
  • NiMH: 3-5 years, some models 10+ years,
  • Lithium Ion: 3-5 years.

As one can see, among the very same battery chemistries, there are large differences in quality and manufacturing processes.

How Many AAA Batteries Weigh 200 Grams?

AAA batteries weigh differently - even AAA batteries of the same chemistries weigh differently.

For example (external links, open in the new windows, battery datasheets PDFs):

  • Duracell Optimum OP2400: 13g → ~15.4 batteries weigh 200g; 15 batteries weigh 195 grams, and 16 batteries weigh 208 grams.
  • Duracell Coppertop MN2400: 13g → ~15.4 batteries weigh 200g; 15 batteries weigh 195 grams, and 16 batteries weigh 208 grams.
  • Duracell NiMH Rechargeable: 12g → ~16.7 batteries weigh 200g; 16 batteries weigh 192 grams, and 17 batteries weigh 204 grams.
  • Energizer E92 MAX: 11.5 grams → ~17.4 batteries weigh 200g; 17 batteries weigh 195.5 grams, and 18 batteries weigh 207 grams.
  • Energizer L92 Ultimate Lithium: 7.6 grams → ~26.3 batteries weigh 200g; 26 batteries weigh 197.6 grams, and 27 batteries weigh 205.2 grams.
  • Energizer NH12-700 (HR03): 11 grams → ~18.2 batteries weigh 200g; 18 batteries weigh 198 grams, and 19 batteries weigh 209 grams.
  • Energizer NH12-800 (HR03): 12 grams → ~16.66 batteries weigh 200g; 16 batteries weigh 192 grams, and 17 batteries weigh 204 grams.

As one can see, AAA battery weight differs among different brands and among different chemistries.

duracell coppertop alkaline aaaLong Story Short: AAA batteries are a very common household type of batteries, with the dimensions of 10.5 × 44.5 mm (0.41 × 1.75 inches). Their most important types are:

  • Alkaline: non-rechargeable, 1.5 V nominal voltage,
  • NiMH: rechargeable, 1.2 V nominal voltage,
  • Lithium: rechargeable 3.6 (3.2) - 3.7 V or rechargeable 1.5 V nominal voltage.

If You are unsure if your device supports other battery types, when buying new batteries, choose the same battery type as you had before - again, better safe than sorry.

For the most up-to-date offers and prices, feel free to check the AAA Battery Amazon link (the link opens in the new window).