Battery Equivalents and Replacements

Best Lead-Acid and Lithium 1 kWh Solar, Marine, Automotive, and Light Industrial Batteries

Lead-acid and lithium 12V batteries with a nominal capacity of 85-100+ Ah are able to store plenty of energy and deliver at least 1000 kWh of energy when discharged under certain conditions.

Unlike lithium batteries, lead-acid deep cycle batteries are very susceptible to high discharge currents in terms of capacity and energy loss. Hence, most of the modern solar and similar systems that require deep-discharge batteries that cycle a lot are based on lithium batteries.

Published: April 11, 2022.

ampere time 12v 100ah lifepo4 w300px

Discharge Issues With Lead-Acid and Lithium Batteries

For a battery to qualify as a "1 kWh battery", it must be able to deliver 1000 Wh (1 kWh) of energy on a single battery charge.

In theory, the ideal 12V battery must feature a nominal capacity of 83.3Ah to feature an energy capacity of 1000 Wh.

However, both lead-acid and lithium batteries have a nominal voltage of 12V, while the actual voltage varies with the battery discharge level and the discharge current. Also, as the discharge current is increased, the actual capacity is decreased - this may be very problematic for lead-acid batteries, while lithium batteries are not as nearly as susceptible to the discharge current as the lead-acid batteries.

Since lithium batteries feature an actual voltage of 12.8 volts which decreases slightly with the increase of discharge current and with the decrease of the remaining charge level, lithium batteries with a nominal capacity of ~85 Ah are able to deliver 1000 Wh (1 kWh) on a single battery charge.

On the other hand, when wet/flooded, AGM and Gel-Cell lead-acid batteries are being discharged with 1C currents, their actual capacity drops down to 50-72% of the batteries' nominal 20h capacity.

For example, the best 12V 100Ah lead-acid batteries feature 1 kWh capacity when they are discharged within 5 hours (0.2C). Anything faster than that and the lead-acid batteries are not able to deliver 1000Wh of energy.

When looking for a 1 kWh battery, go for either BCI Group 27 batteries or preferably for BCI Group 31 batteries.

BCI Group 27 Batteries

BCI Group 27 batteries feature physical dimensions of 12 1/16 x 6 13/16 x 8 7/8 inches (12.0625 x 6.8125 x 8.875 inches; 306 x 173 x 225 mm) with the most popular models being listed in the following comparison chart:

Model

Battery Type

Chemistry

Capacity (Ah)

RC (min)

CCA

MCA

Weight

Review

Banshee 27M

Dual Purpose

Enhanced Flooded

77

140

800

1000

51 lbs; 23.1 kg

-

Banshee LFP-27M

Dual Purpose

LiFePO4

70

~165

900

-

18.8 lbs; 8.52 kg

-

GreenLiFE GL80-80AH

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

80

~190

-

-

28 lbs; 12.8 kg

-

Mighty Max ML100-12

Deep Cycle

AGM

100

-

-

-

63.9 lbs; 29 kg

Review

NorthStar NSB-AGM27

Dual Purpose

AGM

92

195

930

1080

68 lbs; 31 kg

Review

Optima 8027-127 D27M

Dual Purpose

AGM

66

140

800

1000

54 lbs; 24.5 kg

Review

Renogy RBT100LFP12S-G1

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~200

100A cont.

26 lbs; 11.8 kg

-

UPG UB121000

Deep Cycle

AGM

100

170

-

-

64 lbs; 29 kg

Review

VMAXTANKS MR127-100

Deep Cycle

AGM

100

200

-

800

68 lbs; 31 kg

Review

VMAXTANKS SLR100

Deep Cycle

AGM

100

220

-

-

68 lbs; 31 kg

-

VMAXTANKS XTR27-110

 Deep Cycle

AGM

110

220

660

880

68 lbs; 31 kg

Review

Note: Amazon affiliate links ("Model" column) open in the new windows, feel free to check them for the most up-to-date offers and prices.

As one can see, some of the lead-acid and lithium group 27 batteries feature required nominal capacity, but one has to check the exact constant power discharge charts of the lead-acid batteries in order to determine under what conditions these batteries may be considered as "1 kWh batteries".

For example:

upg ub121000 1

Universal Power Group UB121000 AGM Deep Cycle Battery is one of the most popular AGM deep-cycle group 27 batteries, commonly used in various applications that require a well-balanced and reliable, but also an affordable battery.

The following chart shows UPG UB121000 constant power discharge characteristics at 77°F (25°C), with the values given in Watts (W):

Cell End
Voltage (V)
Battery End
Voltage (V)
5 min 10 min 15 min 30 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr
1.6 V 9.60 V 3732.6 2818.7 1917.1 1160.0 660.3 384.8 283.1 220.4 181.5 128.3 115.9 62.4
1.7 V 10.20 V 3438.1 2594.5 1792.7 1149.5 620.4 367.7 275.5 214.7 ~178 125.4 113.1 60.8
1.75 V 10.50 V 3383.0 2521.3 1723.3 1141.9 600.4 359.1 268.9 210.9 175.8 124.5 111.2 60.0
1.8 V 10.80 V 3339.3 2454.8 1658.7 1139.1 584.3 351.5 263.2 207.1 172.9 121.6 110.2 59.8
1.85 V 11.10 V 3278.5 2374.1 1582.7 1130.5 576.7 350.6 260.3 206.2 172.0 120.7 107.4 58.0

Note: The value for 5 hr constant discharge power down to 10.20 V is given as an approximation because the official data given by UPG is - wrong. At least last time we checked ...

As one can see, the energy capacity of the UPB UB121000 depends on the discharge power:

- 1h: 620.4 Wh,

- 2h: 735.4 Wh,

- 3h: 826.5 Wh,

- 4h: 858.8 Wh,

- 5h: 890 Wh,

- 8h: 996 Wh,

- 10h: 1112 Wh,

- 20h: 1200 Wh.

So, despite having a nominal capacity of 12V and a nominal (20h) capacity of 100 Ah, the UPG UB12000 battery can be considered as a 1 kWh battery only when being discharged for a period of ~8-10 or more hours.

Another problem with lead-acid batteries is that not all manufacturers provide exact constant current and constant power discharge charts.

BCI Group 31 Batteries

BCI Group 31 batteries feature physical dimensions of 13 x 6 13/16 x 9 7/16 inches (~13 x 6.8 x 9.44 inches, 330 x 173 x 240 mm) with the most popular models being listed in the following comparison chart:

Model

Battery Type

Battery Chemistry

Capacity (Ah)

RC (min)

CCA

MCA

Weight (lbs/kg)

Review

Aicipow PDAC-12100

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

100A cont.

26 lbs; 11.8 kg

-

AIMS Power LFP12V100A

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

-

-

30.2 lbs; 13.7 kg

-

AIMS Power LFP12V100B

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

100A cont.

200A 10s

28.5 lbs; 12.9 kg

-

Ampere Time 12V 100Ah

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

280A 5s

24.25 lbs; ~11 kg

Review

Banshee LFP-31M

Dual Purpose

LiFePO4

100

~240

1200 CCA

24.2 lbs; 11 kg

-

Battle Born 100Ah 12V LiFePO4

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

-

-

29 lbs; 13.2 kg

Review

Bioenno Power BLF-12100WS

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

100A cont.

200A 5s

28.1 lbs; 12.8 kg

-

Chins 12V100Ah

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

100A cont.

300A 5s.

23.9 lbs; 10.8 kg

-

Eco-Worthy 12V150Ah

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4 

150

~360

150A cont.

36.7 lbs; 16.6 kg

-

Exide XMC-31

Deep Cycle

AGM

100

200

925

1110

68 lbs; 31 kg

Review
ExpertPower EP12100

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

-

-

29.7 lbs; 13.5 kg

Review

ExpertPower EXP100

Deep Cycle

AGM

100

-

-

-

63.94 lbs; 30 kg

-

FLYPOWER 12V 100Ah

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

100 cont.

200A surge 3-5s

24.3 lbs; ~11 kg

Review

GreenLiFE Battery GL100

Dual Purpose

LiFePO4

100

240

-

-

28 lbs; 12.7 kg

-

GreenLiFE GL5024V

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

50Ah @24V

~120 @24V

-

32 lbs; 14.5 kg

-

GreenLiFE GL36V40

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

40Ah @36V

~96 @36V

50A cont.

31.3 lbs; 14.2 kg

-

Interstate DCM0100

Deep Cycle

AGM

110

3h @23.2A

351.5A 5 min

67.5 lbs; ~30.6 kg

Review

JITA 12V100Ah

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

100A cont.

23.8 lbs; 10.8 kg

-

Lifeline GPL-31T

Deep Cycle

AGM

105

195

600

750

69 lbs;  31.5 kg

-

Lifeline GPL-31XT

Deep Cycle

AGM

125

230

650

800

69 lbs; 31.5 kg

-

Lifeline GPL-3100T

Dual Purpose

AGM

100

228

810

950

67 lbs; 30.4 kg

-

Miady LFP100AH

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

-

-

28.9 lbs; 13.1 kg

-

Mighty Max ML100-12 DS-IGEL

Deep Cycle

Gel

100

180+

-

-

68.2 lbs; 30.9 kg 

-

NorthStar ELT-AGM31

Dual Purpose

AGM

100

190

925

1050

65.7 lbs; 29.8 kg

-

NorthStar NSB-AGM31

Dual Purpose

AGM

103

220

1150

1370

75 lbs; 34.0 kg

-

NorthStar NSB-AGM31M

Dual Purpose

AGM

103

220

1150

1370

75 lbs; 34.0 kg 

-

Odyssey 31-PC2150S

Dual Purpose

AGM

100

205

1150

1370

77.8 lbs; 35.3 kg 

Review

Optima 8052-161 D31M

Dual Purpose

AGM

75

155

900

1125

59.8 lbs; 27.1 kg

Review

Power Queen 12V100Ah

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

100A cont.

25.25 lbs; 11.0 kg

-

Renogy RNG-BATT-AGM12-100

Deep Cycle

AGM

104

180+

-

-

66 lbs; 29.9 kg

Review

Renogy RNG-BATT-GEL12-100

Deep Cycle

Gel-Cell

100

180+

-

-

60 lbs; 27.2 kg

Review

Renogy RBT100GEL12-G1

Deep Cycle

Gel-Cell

100

~175

-

-

63.9 lbs; 29 kg

Review

Renogy RBT100LFP12S-G1

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

-

-

26 lbs; 11.8 kg

Review

Scream Power 12V100Ah

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

?

24.3 lbs; 11 kg

-

Trojan T31-AGM

Deep Cycle

AGM

102

200

-

-

69 lbs; 31.3 kg

-

Trojan T31-GEL

Deep Cycle

Gell-Cell

102

200

-

-

70 lbs; 31.7 kg

-

UPG UB121100

Deep Cycle

AGM

110

-

-

-

70 lbs; 29.8 kg

-

VMAXTANKS SLR125

Deep Cycle

AGM

125

260

-

-

75 lbs; 34 kg

Review

VMAXTANKS MR137-120

Deep Cycle

AGM

120

230

-

900

75 lbs; 34 kg

Review

VMAXTANKS VPG12C-100LFP

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

-

-

26.4 lbs; ~12.0 kg

-

VMAXTANKS XTR31-135

Deep Cycle

AGM

135

265

730

920

77 lbs; 34.9 kg

-

XS Power XP3000

Deep Cycle

AGM

120

240

-

-

73 lbs;  33.1 kg

-

Weize 12V 100Ah AGM

Deep Cycle

AGM

100

-

-

-

60 pounds; 27.2 kg

Review

Weize 12V 100Ah Gel

Deep Cycle

Gel-Cell

100

<180

-

-

67 pounds; 30.4 kg

Review

Weize FPLI-12100AH

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

50A cont.

100A 3s

26.4 lbs; 12.0 kg

-

WindyNation BAT-NSAP12-100

Deep Cycle

AGM

106

180+

-

-

67 lbs; 30.4 kg

Review

Wingda W100-12V100AH

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

50A cont.

23.8 lbs; 10.8 kg

-

Zooms 12V 100Ah

Deep Cycle

LiFePO4

100

~240

100A cont.

25.35 lbs; ~11.5 kg

Review

Note: Amazon affiliate links ("Model" column) open in the new windows, feel free to check them for the most up-to-date offers and prices.

As one can see, almost all lead-acid and lithium group 31 batteries feature required nominal capacity - again, one has to check the exact constant power discharge charts of the lead-acid batteries in order to determine under what conditions these batteries may be considered as "1 kWh batteries".

Also, some of the group 31 lithium batteries feature nominal capacity in the 120-150+ Ah range and are able to store and what is more important, deliver much more than the required 1 kWh of energy.

For example:

odyssey 31m pc2150st m battery 2

Odyssey 31M-PC2150 (ODX-AGM31) AGM Marine Dual Purpose Battery is one of the best group 31 batteries in terms of its discharge performances.

It is an excellent lead-acid AGM battery that comes in several versions that differ practically only in the battery terminals, with their charging/discharging characteristics being the same.

The following chart lists constant power and constant current discharge values of the Odyssey 31-PC2150 (ODX-AGM31) batteries:

Time Watts (W) Amps (A) Capacity (Ah) Energy (Wh)
2 min 7025 678.5 22.4 231.8
5 min 4740 438.5 36.4 393.4
10 min 3176 285.9 47.7 530.4
15 min 2428 215.5 53.9 607.0
20 min 1980 174.1 58.0 659.2
30 min 1460 127.0 63.5 730.0
45 min 1059 91.2 68.4 793.9
1 hr 835 71.5 71.5 835.2
2 hr 461 39.0 78.0 922.2
3 hr 322 27.1 81.4 966.8
4 hr 249 20.9 83.8 996.8
5 hr 204 17.1 85.6 1020.0
8 hr 134 11.2 89.7 1070.4
10 hr 110 9.2 91.9 1095.9
20 hr 60 5.0 100.3 1191.9

Unlike the UPG UB121000 battery which is able to deliver ~996 Wh during the period of at least 8 hours, the Odyssey 31-PC2150 battery is able to provide 996.8 Wh (very close to 1 kWh) during the period of 4 or more hours.

This is not a surprise, since Odyssey 31M-PC2150 (ODX-AGM31) battery is a premium AGM battery that is used for mission-critical and other similar applications where a tough and durable battery is required.


Few Final Words

battleborn 100ah 12v lifepo4 battery mIf You are looking for a 1 kWh battery, depending on other requirements like number of supported charging/discharging cycles, discharging current, charging current, power surges and similar, go for either lithium 12V 85-100+ Ah battery or for lead-acid 12V 100+ Ah battery.

Note: some brands offer group 31 24V, 36V, and 48V lithium batteries - these batteries are also 1+ kWh batteries although their nominal capacities are lower since their voltages are higher ...

Amazon Search:

- Group 31 Battery

- Group 31 Lithium Battery

- Group 31 AGM Battery

Note: Amazon links open in the new windows, feel free to check them for the most up-to-date offers and prices.