# Large Numbers: How Many Zeros in a Million, Billion, Trillion, etc.

In the world of electrical engineering, finance, mathematics, physics, and everyday calculations, understanding large numbers and their composition is crucial.

Numbers such as a million, billion, and trillion are frequently mentioned in discussions about economies, populations, and scientific data, yet their actual size can sometimes be confusing, especially when Short Scale and Long Scales are used interchangeably.

Published: January 29, 2024.

 Quick Answer - the number of zeros in: Million: Short Scale 6 zeroes, Long Scale 6 zeroes, Milliard: Long Scale 9 zeroes, Billion: Short Scale 9 zeroes, Long Scale 12 zeroes, Billiard: Long Scale 15 zeroes, Trillion: Short Scale 12 zeroes, Long Scale 18 zeroes, Trilliard: Long Scale 21 zeroes, Quadrillion: Short Scale 15 zeroes, Long Scale 24 zeroes, Quadrilliard: Long Scale 27 zeroes, Quintillion: Short Scale 18 zeroes, Long Scale 30 zeroes, Quintilliard: Long Scale 33 zeroes, Sextillion: Short Scale 21 zeroes, Long Scale 36 zeroes. Note: for other, even larger numbers, check the Extra Large Numbers table later in this article.

## Short Scale and Long Scale: Understanding Large Numbers

In the world of large numbers, two primary systems are used to define the value of big numbers: the Short Scale and the Long Scale. These systems, while similar in their early stages (up to a million), diverge significantly in higher values.

### Short Scale

Usage and Definition

The Short Scale is predominantly used in English-speaking countries like the United States, the United Kingdom (since 1974), and Canada.

In this system, each new term greater than a million is 1,000 times larger than the previous term. For instance, a billion is 1,000 million (1,000,000,000), and a trillion is 1,000 billion.

History

The Short Scale was developed in France in the late 17th century and was later adopted by the United States.

The system became popular due to its simplicity and ease of use, especially in financial and scientific communities.

### Long Scale

Usage and Definition

The Long Scale is used in many non-English-speaking countries in Europe, Latin America, and parts of Africa.

In the Long Scale, each new term greater than a million is 1,000,000 times larger than the previous term. This means a billion is equivalent to a million million (1,000,000,000,000), and a trillion is a million billion.

History

The Long Scale was the original system used in France and was once common in the United Kingdom until the mid-20th century.
Its use reflects traditional European number naming practices, where the Latin term "mille" (meaning thousand) played a key role in naming large numbers.

### Differences and Confusions

The primary difference lies in the naming: in the Short Scale, "billion" means a thousand million, while in the Long Scale, it represents a million million.
This difference can lead to confusions, especially in international communications and translations.

For instance, a billion in the U.S. (Short Scale) is not the same as a billion in France (Long Scale).

### Current Trends

There's been a gradual shift towards the Short Scale in many countries, mainly due to the influence of American English and globalization.

However, the Long Scale still remains deeply ingrained in several cultures and languages, preserving a distinct way of interpreting large numbers.

Understanding the distinction between Short Scale and Long Scale is crucial for accurately interpreting and communicating large numbers in a global context.

The historical and regional preferences for these scales reflect not only mathematical differences but also cultural and linguistic diversity.

## SI/Metric Prefixes

SI prefixes, or Metric Prefixes, are a series of symbols and names used to denote multiples and submultiples of metric units.

These prefixes provide a concise and standardized way to express large and small quantities, ranging from the incredibly tiny, like the femtometer, to the immensely large, like the gigameter.

### Use and Application

• Standardization: SI prefixes are part of the International System of Units (SI), ensuring consistency and clarity in scientific, engineering, and mathematical contexts worldwide.
• Wide Range: They cover a broad spectrum, from "yocto-" (10-24) to "yotta-" (1024), allowing precise representation of quantities without unwieldy numbers.

### History and Development

• Origins: The concept of metric prefixes dates back to the French Revolution, which saw the creation of the metric system for a unified and rational approach to measurement.
• Evolution: Over time, as science and technology progressed, additional prefixes were added to accommodate the needs of various fields, particularly in the realms of computing and data measurement.

### Significance

SI prefixes enhance communication clarity, especially in fields like physics, chemistry, and information technology, where they are routinely used.

They also aid in education, providing a structured approach to teaching and understanding both large-scale and microscopic phenomena.

### SI/Metric Prefixes Comparison Table

The following table lists current SI/Metric prefixes, including their names and values.

 Prefix Base 10 Decimal English Word Name Symbol Short Scale Long Scale quetta Q 1030 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 nonillion quintillion ronna R 1027 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 octillion quadrilliard yotta Y 1024 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 septillion quadrillion zetta Z 1021 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 sextillion trilliard exa E 1018 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 quintillion trillion peta P 1015 1 000 000 000 000 000 quadrillion billiard tera T 1012 1 000 000 000 000 trillion billion giga G 109 1 000 000 000 billion milliard mega M 106 1 000 000 million kilo k 103 1 000 thousand hecto h 102 100 hundred deca da 101 10 ten - - 100 1 one deci d 10-1 0.1 tenth centi c 10-2 0.01 hundredth milli m 10-3 0.001 thousandth micro μ 10-6 0.000 001 millionth nano n 10-9 0.000 000 001 billionth milliardth pico p 10-12 0.000 000 000 001 trillionth billionth femto f 10-15 0.000 000 000 000 001 quadrillionth billiardth atto a 10-18 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 quintillionth trillionth zepto z 10-21 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 001 sextillionth trilliardth yocto y 10-24 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001 septillionth quadrillionth ronto r 10-27 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001 octillionth quadrilliardth quecto q 10-30 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001 nonillionth quintillionth

SI prefixes represent a critical component of the metric system, simplifying the expression of measurements across a wide range of scales and fostering uniformity in scientific and technical communication globally.

## Extra Large Numbers

SI prefixes are standardized from 10-30 to 1030, but there are numbers smaller and larger than this that are in use.

Note: their SI prefixes are not officially adopted, but the names of these numbers are official. More or less.

The following table lists some of the largest officially named numbers in both Short Scale and Long Scale.

 Number Name Short Scale Long Scale Million 106 106 Milliard - 109 Billion 109 1012 Billiard - 1015 Trillion 1012 1018 Trilliard - 1021 Quadrillion 1015 1024 Quadrilliard - 1027 Quintillion 1018 1030 Quintilliard - 1033 Sextillion 1021 1036 Sextilliard - 1039 Septillion 1024 1042 Octillion 1027 1048 Nonillion 1030 1054 Decillion 1033 1060 Undecillion 1036 1066 Duodecillion 1039 1072 Tredecillion 1042 1078 Quattuordecillion 1045 1084 Quindecillion 1048 1090 Sexdecillion 1051 1096 Septendecillion 1054 10102 Octodecillion 1057 10108 Novemdecillion 1060 10114 Vigintillion 1063 10120 Centillion 10303 10600

Also, commonly used numbers but not officially accepted are the Googol family of numbers:

• Googol: 10100
• Googolplex: 10googol
• Googolplexian: 10googolplex
• Googolplexianite: 10gogolplexian

etc.

So, finding out a number of zeroes in small numbers like millions, billions, and trillions is a really simple task when compared with finding numbers in, for example, Googol family of numbers - just be sure to understand whether you are dealing with Short Scale (most probably) or Lonf Scale of numbers.